Scientific References

Below are some of the scientific references, research studies and published papers on the key ingredients that go in to TNT Supplements Strong to the Core fat burners.


LONDON, ENGLAND–(Marketwire – January 9, 2015) -Plandaí Biotechnology, Inc. (PLPL) (“Plandaí” or “the Company”), producer of the highly bioavailable Phytofare® catechin complex, today announced that TNT Supplements recently launched their new product, TNT Fat Burner, in the United Kingdom. TNT contains a unique blend of ingredients that have never before been used in tandem, one of which is Plandaí’s Phytofare® catechin complex. Phytofare® is a highly bioavailable green tea-based extract that is unique in having clinical data demonstrating ten timed greater bioavailability over generic green tea extracts. Furthermore, Phytofare® consists of all eight catechins found in green tea, not just ECGC which is found in most weight loss products.

TNT performed a study that began in March of 2015 called “TNT: Strong to the Core,” in which 12 subjects were given four TNT capsules per day and asked to follow a moderate 3x a week exercise regimen and consume a normal calorie diet (2,000 a day for men, 1,500 for women). The results were astounding with each of the 12 subjects losing significant weight and reducing body fat (2 lbs. average). One such subject lost a massive total of 70 lbs. (32kg) over the course of 18 weeks.

Callum Cottrell-Duffield, Vice President of Sales and Marketing for Plandaí Biotechnology, stated, “We at Plandaí are more than thrilled to be working with TNT Supplements on their TNT product, a company that prides itself of using only the highest quality ingredients that generate real results. The reported weight and fat loss from using TNT are phenomenal, and we consider this to be a truly remarkable breakthrough for people around the world who suffer from weight related health issues.”

TNT Supplements added the following statement, “Phytofare® made a huge impact in our TNT Fat Burner, and we are thrilled to have access to such an incredible product that helps us make TNT the best possible for our customers. We understand that not everyone is capable of an intense workout regimen and, frankly, no one enjoys drastic calorie restriction diets. The beauty of the Phytofare®-enhanced TNT Fat Burner is that tremendous results can be obtained from a moderate exercise program and a reasonable, healthy diet. We look forward to expanding sales of TNT outside the UK and into Europe and the US in the coming months.”

For more information about TNT Fat Burner, to read the study details, or order product, visit the company website: About Plandaí Biotechnology, Inc. Plandaí Biotechnology, Inc. and its subsidiaries develop highly phyto-available™ extracts. Plandaí Biotechnology controls every aspect of the process, from growing the raw materials on its farms in South Africa, to producing its proprietary Phytofare® extracts in-house, allowing the Company to guarantee the continuity of supply as well as quality control throughout the entire process. Targeted industries for the Company’s products include beverage, cosmeceutical, wellness, nutriceutical, anti-aging, and pharmaceutical. For more information, please visit

Vitamin B12

Institute of Medicine. Food and Nutrition Board. DRI Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 1998.

Dietary Supplement Fact Sheet: Vitamin B12. Office of Dietary Supplements, National Institutes of Health. Available at: Accessed April 11, 2010.

Dharmarajan TS, Adiga GU, Norkus EP. Vitamin B12 deficiency: recognizing subtle symptoms in older adults. Geriatrics. 2003;58:30-38. Green R. Is it time for vitamin B-12 fortification? What are the questions? Am J Clin Nutr. 2009;89:712S-716S.

Ryan-Harshman M, Aldoori W. Vitamin B12 and health. Can Fam Physician. 2008;54:536-541

Lukaski HC. Vitamin and mineral status: effects on physical performance. Nutrition. 2004;20:632-644 Institute of Medicine. Food and Nutrition Board. DRI Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 1998.

Dierkes, J. Vitamin requirements for the reduction of homocysteine blood levels in healthy young women. 1995; Herrmann W, et al Functional vitamin B12 deficiency and determination of holotranscobalamin in populations at risk . Clin Chem Lab Med. (2003)

Vitamin B1

Allen L, de Benoist B, Dary O, Hurrell R, eds. Guidelines on Food Fortification with Micronutrients external link disclaimer. Geneva: World Health Organization and Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations; 2006.

World Health Organization. Thiamine Deficiency and Its Prevention and Control in Major Emergencies. Geneva; 1999.

Aasheim ET. Wernicke encephalopathy after bariatric surgery: a systematic review. Ann Surg 2008;248:714-20.

Xanthakos SA. Nutritional deficiencies in obesity and after bariatric surgery. Pediatr Clin North Am 2009;56:1105-21.

Page GL, Laight D, Cummings MH. Thiamine deficiency in diabetes mellitus and the impact of thiamine replacement on glucose metabolism and vascular disease. Int J Clin Pract 2011;65:684-90.

Alaei Shahmiri F, Soares MJ, Zhao Y, Sherriff J. High-dose thiamine supplementation improves glucose tolerance in hyperglycemic individuals: a randomized, double-blind cross-over trial. Eur J Nutr 2013;52:1821-4.

Vitamin B7

Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine. Biotin. Dietary Reference Intakes: Thiamin,Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press; 1998:374-389. (National Academy Press)

Mock DM. Biotin. In: Shils ME, Olson JA, Shike M, Ross AC, eds. Modern Nutrition in Health and Disease. 9th ed. Baltimore: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 1999:459-466.

Chapman-Smith A, Cronan JE, Jr. Molecular biology of biotin attachment to proteins. J Nutr. 1999;129(2S Suppl):477S-484S.

Zempleni J, Mock DM. Biotin biochemistry and human requirements. 1999; volume 10: pages 128-138. J Nutr. Biochem. 1999;10:128-138.

Baez-Saldana A, Zendejas-Ruiz I, Revilla-Monsalve C, et al. Effects of biotin on pyruvate carboxylase, acetyl-CoA carboxylase, propionyl-CoA carboxylase, and markers for glucose and lipid homeostasis in type 2 diabetic patients and nondiabetic subjects. Am J Clin Nutr. 2004;79(2):238-243.

Revilla-Monsalve C, Zendejas-Ruiz I, Islas-Andrade S, et al. Biotin supplementation reduces plasma triacylglycerol and VLDL in type 2 diabetic patients and in nondiabetic subjects with hypertriglyceridemia. Biomed Pharmacother. 2006;60(4):182-185.

Zempleni J, Mock DM. Human peripheral blood mononuclear cells: ; Inhibition of biotin transport by reversible competition with pantothenic acid is quantitatively minor. J Nutr Biochem. 1999;10(7):427-432.

Flodin N. Pharmacology of micronutrients. New York: Alan R. Liss, Inc.; 1988.

Camporeale G, Zempleni J. Biotin. In: Bowman BA, Russell RM, eds. Present Knowledge in Nutrition. 9th ed. Volume 1. Washington, D.C.: ILSI Press; 2006:314-326.

Stratton SL, Bogusiewicz A, Mock MM, Mock NI, Wells AM, Mock DM. Lymphocyte propionyl- CoA carboxylase and its activation by biotin are sensitive indicators of marginal biotin deficiency in humans. Am J Clin Nutr. 2006;84(2):384-388.

Mock DM. Biotin status: which are valid indicators and how do we know? J Nutr. 1999;129(2S Suppl):498S-503S.

Briggs DR, Wahlqvist ML. Food facts: the complete no-fads-plain-facts guide to healthy eating. Victoria, Australia: Penguin Books; 1988.

Staggs CG, Sealey WM, McCabe BJ, Teague AM, Mock DM. Determination of the biotin content of select foods using accurate and sensitive HPLC/avidin binding. J Food Compost Anal. 2004;17(6):767-776.

Said HM, Ortiz A, McCloud E, Dyer D, Moyer MP, Rubin S. Biotin uptake by human colonic epithelial NCM460 cells: a carrier-mediated process shared with pantothenic acid. Am J Physiol. 1998;275(5 Pt 1):C1365-1371. (PubMed)

Vitamin B6

Dakshinamurti S, Dakshinamurti K. Vitamin B6. In: Zempleni J, Rucker RB, McCormick DB,Suttie JW, eds. Handbook of Vitamins. 4th ed. New York: CRC Press (Taylor & Francis Group); 2007:315-359

McCormick DB. Vitamin B6. In: Bowman BA, Russell RM, eds. Present Knowledge in Nutrition. Vol. I. Washington, D.C.: International Life Sciences Institute; 2006:269-277 Leklem JE. Vitamin B6. In: Machlin L, ed. Handbook of Vitamins. New York: Marcel Decker Inc; 1991:341-378

Hansen CM, Shultz TD, Kwak HK, Memon HS, Leklem JE. Assessment of vitamin B-6 status in young women consuming a controlled diet containing four levels of vitamin B-6 provides an estimated average requirement and recommended dietary allowance. J Nutr. 2001;131(6):1777-1786

Vitamin B5

Konings EJ; Committee on Food Nutrition. Water-soluble vitamins. JAOAC Int. 2006 Jan-Feb;89(1):285-8.

McPherson. Henry’s Clinical Diagnosis and Management by Laboratory Methods, 22nd ed.Philadelphia, PA: Saunders, An Imprint of Elsevier. 2011.

National Academy of Sciences. Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs): Recommended Intakes for Individuals, Vitamins. Accessed June 1, 2011.

Nutrients and Nutritional Agents. In: Kastrup EK, Hines Burnham T, Short RM, et al, eds. Drug Facts and Comparisons. St. Louis, Mo: Facts and Comparisons; 2000:4-5.

Scheurig AC, Thorand B, Fischer B, Heier M, Koenig W. Association between the intake of vitamins and trace elements from supplements and C-reactive protein: results of the MONICA/KORA Augsburg study.Eur J Clin Nutr. 2007 Feb 21

Early, R. G. and Carlson, B. R. Water-soluble vitamin therapy in the delay of fatigue from physical activity in hot climatic conditions. Int.Z.Angew.Physiol 1969;27:43-50

Løvås K, et al – Tetradecylthioacetic acid attenuates dyslipidaemia in male patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, possibly by dual PPAR-alpha/delta activation and increased mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation . Diabetes Obes Metab. (2009)

Røst TH, et al – A pan-PPAR ligand induces hepatic fatty acid oxidation in PPARalpha-/- mice possibly through PGC-1 mediated PPARdelta coactivation . Biochim Biophys Acta. (2009)

Morken T, et al -Anti-inflammatory and hypolipidemic effects of the modified fatty acid tetradecylthioacetic acid in psoriasis–a pilot study . Scand J Clin Lab Invest. (2011)

Pettersen RJ, et al Pharmacology and safety of tetradecylthioacetic acid (TTA): phase-1 study . J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. (2008)

Gedde-Dahl A, et al – Tetradecylthioacetic acid (a 3-thia fatty acid) decreases triacylglycerol secretion in CaCo-2 cells . J Lipid Res. (1995)

Skrede S, et al -Stimulation of fatty acid oxidation by a 3-thia fatty acid reduces triacylglycerol secretion in cultured rat hepatocytes . J Lipid Res. (1994) Gedde-Dahl A, et al – Tetradecylthioacetic acid (a 3-thia fatty acid) impairs secretion of oleic acid- induced triacylglycerol-rich lipoproteins in CaCo-2 cells . Biochim Biophys Acta. (1999)

Larsen LN, et al – Sulfur-substituted and alpha-methylated fatty acids as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor activators . Lipids. (2005)

Berge RK, Hvattum E – Impact of cytochrome P450 system on lipoprotein metabolism. Effect of abnormal fatty acids (3-thia fatty acids) . Pharmacol Ther. (1994)

Hafstad AD, et al – Cardiac peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha activation causes increased fatty acid oxidation, reducing efficiency and post-ischaemic functional loss .Cardiovasc Res. (2009)

Madsen, L; Guerre-Millo, M; Flindt, EN; Berge, K; Tronstad, KJ; Bergene, E; Sebokova,E; Rustan, AC et al. (2002). “Tetradecylthioacetic acid prevents high fat diet induced adiposity and insulin resistance”. Journal of lipid research 43 (5): 742–50.

Pettersen, RJ; Salem, M; Skorve, J; Ulvik, RJ; Berge, RK; Nordrehaug, JE (2008). “Pharmacology and safety of tetradecylthioacetic acid (TTA): Phase-1 study”. Journal of cardiovascular pharmacology 51 (4): 410–7.doi:10.1097/FJC.0b013e3181673be0.

Madsen L, et al – Tetradecylthioacetic acid prevents high fat diet induced adiposity and insulin resistance . J Lipid Res. (2002)

Stohs SJ, Shara M. A review of the safety and efficacy of Citrus aurantium in weight management. In: Bagchi D, Preuss HG, editors. Obesity: Epidemiology, Pathophysiology, and Prevention. Boca Raton, FL, USA: CRC Press; 2007. pp. 371–382.

Penzak SR, Jann MW, Cold JA. et al. Seville (sour) orange juice: synephrine content and cardiovascular effects in normotensive adults. J Clin Pharmacol. 2001;41:1059–1063.

Bent S, Padula A, Neuhaus J. Safety and efficacy of Citrus aurantium for weight loss. Amer J Cardiol.2004;94:1359–1361.

Nasir JM, Durning SJ. et al. Exercise-induced syncope associated with QT prolongation and ephedra-free Xenadrine. Mayo Clinic Proceed. 2004;79:1059–1062.

Stohs SJ, Preuss HG, Shara M. A review of the receptor-binding properties of p-synephrine as related to its pharmacological effects. Oxid Med Cell Long. 2011 doi:10.1155/2011/482873.

Stohs SJ, Preuss HG. Stereochemical and pharmacological differences between naturally occurring p synephrine and synthetic p synephrine. J Funct Foods. 2011 doi:10.1016/j.jff.2011.09.004.

Stohs SJ, Preuss HG. The Safety of bitter orange (Citrus aurantium) and its primary protoalkaloid p-synephrine. HerbalGram. 2011;89:34–39.

Colker CM, Kalman DS, Torina GC, Perlis T, Street C. Effects of Citrus aurantium extract, caffeine, and St. John’s wort on body fat loss, lipid levels, and mood states in overweight healthy adults. Curr Therap Res. 1999;60:145–153.

Dulloo AG, Duret C, Rohrer D. et al. Efficacy of a green tea extract rich in catechin polyphenols and caffeine in increasing 24-h energy expenditure and fat oxidation in humans. Amer J ClinNutr.1999;70:1040–1045. [PubMed]

Kalman DS, Oxford S, Schwartz HI, Krieger DR. A double blind clinical evaluation of the metabolic effects of Xenadrine EFXTM compared to two ephedra-containing products in normal healthy volunteers. Presented at the annual meeting of the American College of Nutrition, Abstract No. 101. J Amer Coll Nutr.2002;21:488.

Kalman DS, Colker CM, Shi Q, Swain MA. Effects of a weight-loss aid in healthy overweight adults: double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical study. Curr Ther Res. 2000;61:199–205.

Kalman DS, Incledon T, Gaunaurd I. et al. An acute clinical trial evaluating the cardiovascular effects of an herbal ephedra-caffeine weight loss product in healthy overweight adults. Int J Obes. 2002;26:1363–1366.

Slezak T, Francis PS, Anastos N, Barnett NW. Determination of synephrine in weight-loss products using high performance liquid chromatography with acidic potassium permanganate chemiluminescence detection. Anal Chim Acta. 2007;593:98–102.

Min B, Cios D, Kluger J, White CM. Absence of QTc interval- prolonging or hemodynamic effects of a single dose of bitter orange extract in healthy subjects. Pharmacother. 2005;25:1719–1724.

Haller CA, Benowitz N, Peyton J III. Hemodynamic effects of ephedra-free weight loss supplements in humans. Amer J Med. 2005;118:998–1003.

Bui LT, Nguyen DT, Ambrose PJ. Blood pressure and heart rate affects following a single dose of bitter orange. Ann Pharmacodyn. 2006;40:53–57.

Sale C, Harris RC, Delves S, Corbett J. Metabolic and physiological effects of ingesting extracts of bitter orange, green tea and guarana at rest and during treadmill walking in overweight males. Int J Obesity.2006;30:764–773.

Gougeon R, Harrigan K, Tremblay JF. et al. Increase in the thermic effect of food in women by adrenergic amines extracted from Citrus aurantium. Obesity Res. 2006;13:1187–1194.

Haller CA, Duan M, Peyton J III, Benowitz N. Human pharmacology of a performance-enhancing dietary supplement under resting and exercise conditions. Brit J Clin Pharmacol. 2008;65:833–840.

Seifert JG, Nelson A, Devonish J. et al. Effect of acute administration of an herbal preparation on blood pressure and heart rate in humans. International J Med Sci. 2011;8:192–197.

Stohs SJ, Preuss HG, Keith SC. et al. Effects of p-synephrine alone and in combination with selected bioflavonoids on resting metabolism, blood pressure, heart rate and self-reported mood changes. Int J Med Sci. 2011;8:295–301.

Shara M, Stohs SJ. Safety evaluation of bitter orange extract (p-synephrine) in healthy volunteers. Presented at the annual meeting of the American College of Nutrition. Abstract No. 16. J Amer Coll Nutr.2012;30:358.

Bloomer RJ, Canale RE, Blankenship MM. et al. Effects of the dietary supplement Meltdown on catecholamine secretion, markers of lipolysis, and metabolic rate in men and women: a randomized, placebo controlled, cross-over study. Lipids Health Disease. 2009;8:32–40.

Bloomer R, Fisher-Wellman KH, Hammond KG. et al. Dietary supplement increases plasma norepinephrine, lipolysis, and metabolic rate in resistance trained men. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2009;6:6–12.

Hoffman JR, Kang J, Ratamess NA. et al. Thermogenic effect of an acute ingestion of a weight loss supplement. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2009;6:1–5.

Riksen NP, Smits P, Rongen GA. The cardiovascular effects of methylxanthines. Handbook Exper Pharmacol. 2011;200:413–437.

Sparks LM, et al – Remodeling lipid metabolism and improving insulin responsiveness in human primary myotubes . PLoS One. (2011)

Greenway FL, Bray GA Regional fat loss from the thigh in obese women after adrenergic modulation . Clin Ther. (1987)

Kaik G, Witte PU Protective effect of forskolin in acetylcholine provocation in healthy probands. Comparison of 2 doses with fenoterol and placebo . Wien Med Wochenschr. (1986)

Barovsky K, Pedone C, Brooker G – Forskolin-stimulated cyclic AMP accumulation mediates protein synthesis-dependent refractoriness in C6-2B rat glioma cells . J Cyclic Nucleotide Protein Phosphor Res. (1983)

Seldin MM, et al – Myonectin (CTRP15), a Novel Myokine That Links Skeletal Muscle to Systemic Lipid Homeostasis . J Biol Chem. (2012) Richmond SR, Touchberry CD, Gallagher PM Forskolin attenuates the action of insulin on the Akt-mTOR pathway in human skeletal muscle . Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. (2009)

Filippa N, et al – Mechanism of protein kinase B activation by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase . Mol Cell Biol. (1999)

Martin LF, et al – Alterations in adipocyte adenylate cyclase activity in morbidly obese and formerly morbidly obese humans . Surgery. (1990)

Burns TW, et al – Comparative effects of forskolin and isoproterenol on the cyclic AMP content of human adipocytes . Life Sci. (1987)

Henderson S, et al – Effects of coleus forskohlii supplementation on body composition and hematological profiles in mildly overweight women . J Int Soc Sports Nutr. (2005)

Black CD, et al – Ginger (Zingiber officinale) reduces muscle pain caused by eccentric exercise . J Pain. (2010)

Fuhrman B, Rosenblat M, Hayek T, Coleman R, Aviram M. Ginger extract consumption reduces plasma cholesterol, inhibits LDL oxidation, and attenuates development of atherosclerosis in atherosclerotic, apolipoprotein E-deficient mice. J Nutr. 2000;130(5):1124-1131.

Barrett B, Kiefer D, Rabago D. Assessing the risks and benefits of herbal medicine: An overview of scientific evidence. Altern Ther Health Med. 1999;5(4):40–9.

Heimes K, Feistel B, Verspohl EJ Impact of the 5-HT3 receptor channel system for insulin secretion and interaction of ginger extracts . Eur J Pharmacol. (2009)

Dulloo AG, Duret C, Rohrer D, Girardier L, Mensi N, Fathi M, Chantre P, Vandermander J (1999). “Efficacy of a green tea extract rich in catechin polyphenols and caffeine in increasing 24-h energy expenditure and fat oxidation in humans”. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 70 (6): 1040–5.

Nagao T, Komine Y, Soga S, et al. (January 2005). “Ingestion of a green tea rich in catechins leads to a reduction in body fat and malondialdehyde-modified LDL in men”. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 81 (1): 122–9.

Venables, Michelle C; Hulston, Carl J; Cox, Hannah R; Jeukendrup, Asker E (March 2008). “Green tea extract ingestion, fat oxidation, and glucose tolerance in healthy humans”. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 87 (3): 778–784. PMID 18326618. Retrieved 2008-10-25.

Cabrera C, Artacho R, Giménez R (April 2006). “Beneficial effects of green tea–a review”. J Am Coll Nutr 25 (2): 79–99.

Maron DJ, Lu GP, Cai NS, et al. (June 2003). “Cholesterol-lowering effect of a theaflavin-enriched green tea extract: a randomized controlled trial”. Arch. Intern. Med. 163 (12): 1448–53. doi:10.1001/archinte.163.12.1448. PMID 12824094.

Emad Al-Dujaili, Jon-Paul Bradley, Suzana Almoosawi & Lorna Fyfe (2009).”Effects of green tea consumption on blood pressure, total cholesterol, body weight and fat in healthy volunteers”. Endocrine Abstracts 20: P470.

Kuriyama S, Hozawa A, Ohmori K, et al. (February 2006). “Green tea consumption and cognitive function: a cross-sectional study from the Tsurugaya Project 1”. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 83 (2): 355–61.

Dulloo AG, Duret C, Rohrer D, et al. (December 1999). “Efficacy of a green tea extract rich in catechin polyphenols and caffeine in increasing 24-h energy expenditure and fat oxidation in humans”. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 70 (6): 1040–5.

Belza A, Toubro S, Astrup A. The effect of caffeine, green tea and tyrosine on thermogenesis and energy intake. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2007.

Boschmann M, Thielecke F. The effects of epigallocatechin-3-gallate on thermogenesis and fat oxidation in obese men: a pilot study. J Am Coll Nutr. 2007;26(4):389S-395S.

Brown AL, Lane J, Holyoak C, Nicol B, Mayes AE, Dadd T. Health effects of green tea catechins in overweight and obese men: a randomised controlled cross-over trial. Br J Nutr. 2011 Jun 7:1-10.

Cooper R, Morre DJ, Morre DM. Medicinal benefits of green tea: Part I. Review of noncancer health benefits. J Altern Complement Med. 2005;11(3):521-8.

Diepvens K, Westerterp KR, Westerterp-Plantenga MS. Obesity and thermogenesis related to the consumption of caffeine, ephedrine, capsaicin and green tea. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2007;292(1):R77-85.

Fukino Y, Ikeda A, Maruyama K, Aoki N, Okubo T, Iso H. Randomized controlled trial for an effect of green tea-extract powder supplementation on glucose abnormalities. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2007.

Kimura K, Ozeki M, Juneja LR, Ohira H. L-Theanine reduces psychological and physiological stress responses. Biol Psychol. 2007;74(1):39-45.

Koo SI, Noh SK. Green tea as inhibitor of the intestinal absorption of lipids: potential mechanism for its lipid-lowering effect. J Nutr Biochem. 2007;18(3):179-83.

Kovacs EM, Lejeune MP, Nijs I, Westerterp-Plantenga MS. Effects of green tea on weight maintenance after body-weight loss. Br J Nutr Mar 1, 2004;91(3):431-437.

Nagao T, Hase T, Tokimitsu I. A green tea extract high in catechins reduces body fat and cardiovascular risks in humans. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2007;15(6):1473-83.

Zheng XX, Xu YL, Li SH, Liu XX, Hui R, Huang XH. Green tea intake lowers fasting serum total and LDL cholesterol in adults: a meta-analysis of 14 randomized controlled trials. Am J Clin Nutr. 2011; 94(2):601-10.

Westerterp-Plantenga MS, Lejeune MP, Kovacs EM. Body weight and weight maintenance in relation to habitual caffeine intake and green tea. Obes Res Jul 2005;13(7):1195-1204.

Thavanesan N. The putative effects of green tea on body fat: an evaluation of the evidence and a review of the potential mechanisms. Br J Nutr. 2011 Aug 3:1-13.

Yoshioka M, et al -Effects of red-pepper diet on the energy metabolism in men, J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo). (1995)

Walter AA, et al – Acute effects of a thermogenic nutritional supplement on cycling time to exhaustion and muscular strength in college-aged men . J Int Soc Sports Nutr. (2009)

Galgani JE, Ryan DH, Ravussin E – Effect of capsinoids on energy metabolism in human subjects. Br J Nutr. (2010)

 Jordt SE, Julius D – Molecular basis for species-specific sensitivity to “hot” chili peppers . Cell. (2002)

Szallasi A, et al – The stimulation of capsaicin-sensitive neurones in a vanilloid receptor-mediated fashion by pungent terpenoids possessing an unsaturated 1,4-dialdehyde moiety . Br J Pharmacol. (1996)

Kawada T, et al -Capsaicin-induced beta-adrenergic action on energy metabolism in rats: influence of capsaicin on oxygen consumption, the respiratory quotient, and substrate utilization . Proc Soc Exp Biol Med. (1986)

Oyagbemi AA, Saba AB, Azeez OI – Capsaicin: a novel chemopreventive molecule and its underlying molecular mechanisms of action . Indian J Cancer. (2010)

Yoshida T, et al – Nitric oxide activates TRP channels by cysteine S-nitrosylation. Nat Chem Biol. (2006)

Lin J, et al – Transcriptional co-activator PGC-1 alpha drives the formation of slow-twitch muscle fibres . Nature. (2002)

Wu H, et al – Regulation of mitochondrial biogenesis in skeletal muscle by CaMK Science. (2002)

Naya FJ, et al – Stimulation of slow skeletal muscle fiber gene expression by calcineurin in vivo . J Biol Chem. (2000)

Oh TW, Oh TW, Ohta F – Dose-dependent effect of capsaicin on endurance capacity in rats . Br J Nutr. (2003)